No not all EU countries are part of the Schengen Agreement. Most notably Britain and Ireland ARE NOT part of the Schengen agreement and therefore a resident permit for these countries does not enable you to travel to the Schengen area. You would still require a Schengen visa even as a resident of the UK or Ireland. The Schengen Agreement is a specific agreement between 24 European countries. see: List of Schengen Countries
A single entry visa allows the traveller to enter a country once during the validity of the visa issued. When the traveller has left the country the visa is no longer valid and you would be required to re-apply for another visa if you wish to visit that country again. A multi entry visa will allow you to enter/leave the country several times during the validity of the visa. In the case of a Schengen Visa you would be able to use a multi-entry visa to visit other Schengen countries.
Most visa requirements are based on reciprocal agreements between two countries. Some countries base visa requirements on diplomatic or historical relations.
In general, tourist visas are issued for the purpose of tourism, while a "business" visa permits a traveller to engage in normal business related activities. The visa requirements for tourist and/or business visas may vary. Many countries that do not require tourist visas for UK passport holders may require a visa for business purposes.
Most visas are stamped, or affixed, in your passport on the pages specifically marked for them, and foreign consular officials require that visa stamps be placed on those pages that do not contain any other stamps or marks.
Having indefinite leave to remain in the United Kingdom does not affect whether you require a visa or not as visa requirements are based on the passport that you travel on.
There are many countries that British passport holders do not require a visa for when travelling as a tourist for short periods (usually for periods between 30 days to 180 days). In these cases it may be sufficient for the traveller to present a British passport valid for at least six months, as well as a ticket showing a scheduled date of departure from the country being visited. Depending upon the country, business visas are most often required for a traveller who has a commercial agenda in the destination country. The Schengen Office can assist British citizens in obtaining visas for countries where they do need visas including Russia, India, China, Nepal, Vietnam, Thailand, Syria, Jordan, Egypt, Kenya and Tanzania to name a few.
Visa invitations/confirmations are documents, often directly approved by the Foreign Ministry of the country to be visited, that authorises a particular traveller to visit that country. They typically state the dates and cities you are visiting, the name of a hosting organisation, as well as an "official" reference number and seal of approval. This is particularly prevalent for Russia and many Schengen countries. Required formats for invitations and confirmations vary by country.
Each embassy has its own stance on how long a visa will be issued for. Some are issued for the specific dates that you are travelling (usually single entry), others may be multi-entry, some are valid from the day you apply others a valid from date of expected first entry.
The decision to grant a visa, the duration of the visa and/or the type of visa is at the sole discretion of The Embassy/Consulate. The embassies are not obliged in any way to issue a visa.
The time it takes to obtain a visa varies between each country and in some cases is dependent on your nationality. Visas can take anywhere from one day to ten weeks to obtain. In some cases as an agency we are able to obtain a visa in a shorter period of time relative to public applications.
Requirements vary between countries. Some of the requirements requested by the embassies include:
Minors are generally required to provide written approval from both parents/legal guardians and submission of birth certificate and parents/legal guardians passports on application.
Bangladesh Cambodia China India Kazakhstan Kyrgyz Republic Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Sri Lanka Thailand Vietnam